API Gravity ASTMD1298
API Gravity is the measure of a diesel fuel’s density, or weight per volume. The higher the API Gravity, the less dense the fuel. API Gravity can provide valuable information about a fuel’s composition and performance characteristic’s including power economy, low temperature properties and smoking tendencies.
This gives the customer a visual aid to how clean the fuel is.
Dissolved Water by K.F. ASTM D6304
Water is identified by measuring the total and entrained water through coulometric titration. It draws the water out and measures it. Water causes hot spots, engine failure, knocking engine, lose BTU, heat combustion, loss of power, exhaust issues and cylinder wear.
Corrosion Copper Strip
Accelerated simulation of the corrosive effect the fuel is having on the copper engine components.
Distillation, IBP ASTM D86
Distillation temperature is the temperature at which 90% of the fuel volume can be distilled off. This temperature is directly related to the fuel’s volatility and therefore, its’ Cetane Index, density, flash point and viscosity as well. A #2 diesel fuel’s minimum distillation temperature should be approximately 300° F and its maximum should be approximately 700° F.
IBP outside limit
A sample with an initial boiling point that is below limit may tend to contain lighter end product within fuel.
Fuels having too low volatility tend to reduce power output and fuel economy through poor atomization.
50% outside limit
A result that exceeds 50% distillation limit may have tendency to:
- Cause smoke formation.
- Give rise to objectionable odor.
- Cause lubrication oil contamination and promote engine deposits
FBP outside limit
Those fuels having too high distillation may reduce power output and fuel economy through vapor lock in the fuel system.
Inadequate droplet penetration from the nozzle
Cetane Index ASTM D976
Cetane Index is a measure of a diesel fuel’s ignition quality. The limit for a #2 diesel fuel is a Cetane Index of at least 40.
Sediment & Water ASTM D2709
Water & Sediment in fuel can cause corrosion, wear, bacterial growth and premature fuel filter clogging. The amount of water in fuel should not exceed 500 ppm (0.05%). Sediment should not be greater than 100 ppm (0.01%).
Stability/Accelerated Aging Du Point F21-61
Accelerated simulation gauges the durability of the fuel and how well it ages with time. It is exposed to elemental changes to show what it will do. As it ages it has a lower tolerance level to withstand engine conditions. The PSI in the middle and bottom of the fuel tank contribute to the fuel falling out of spec. Negatively effects emissions, BTU, combustibility and engine failure.
Flash Point ASTM D93
Flash Point is the lowest temperature at which the vapors of a combustible liquid will ignite momentarily in air. Low diesel fuel flash points indicate contamination by more volatile fuels such as gasoline.
Sulfur ASTM 5453
Sulfur content will affect SOx emission and can have adverse effects on many NOx and PM emission reduction devices. The amount of sulfur allowed in diesel fuel is regulated by the government. Bulk delivery of diesel fuel should be tested to include sulfur levels.
Microbial Growth Microscopic Culture Growth
Atmospheric and water borne microbial organisms. They double in length every 20 minutes. They consume the combustion properties of the fuel. Causes filter clogging, they excrete acidic compounds that mixes with water to increase the corrosion of the tank and engine.